The two biggest players for digital advertising may have finally halted the blockchain hype.
In March 2018, Google updated its financial services advertising policy. With these changes, ads for "Cryptocurrencies and related content (including but not limited to initial coin offerings, cryptocurrency exchanges, cryptocurrency wallets, and cryptocurrency trading advice)" will no longer be displayed in Google's ad network. Facebook had already banned cryptos and ICOs (initial coin offerings) from its platform in January.
How did the market react?
Almost all cryptocurrencies lost 10% to 20% in value during the 24 hours after the latest announcement. This includes all coins with the biggest market cap (Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Bitcoin Cash, Litecoin) and also those that were expected to gain a lot of momentum in 2018 (NEO, IOTA, OmiseGO).
This clearly shows one of the risks you take when trading with cryptocurrencies: It's an extremely volatile market, and depending on when you buy, you may experience considerable losses within a couple of days or even hours.
Of course, the opposite situation has also occurred. At one point in 2017 the value for bitcoin soared more than 1,500% since the beginning of the year. People suddenly became millionaires, because they invested in Bitcoin at the right time -- before the real hype started.
I think we can all agree that trading cryptos is not for the faint of heart. Apart from extreme volatility, what are some of the other potential risks associated with dabbling in cryptocurrencies?
Total Loss & Market Manipulation
First, digital currencies can suddenly become worthless if investor interest dissipates. In fact, bitcoin discloses this warning in its FAQs. Even Deutsche Bank has listed a bitcoin crash as onw of the risk to markets in 2018.
Some coin exchanges allow you to set stop-loss orders, which could be considered to help deal with that risk. With a stop-loss order, you automatically sell at a pre-determined lower price to avoid losing all your money. Unfortunately, there's a problem with that strategy: market manipulation.
Using stop-loss orders is common practice in the stock market. For cryptocurrencies; however, they might not work as intended because the market is unregulated. Investors who hold large amounts of coins can easily manipulate the market by selling their coins with the goal to trigger the stop-losses. Afterward, they can simply repurchase their coins at a lower price and pocket the difference.
In November 2017 the Guardian published an article with the headline ''$300m in cryptocurrency' accidentally lost forever due to bug." Author Alex Hern outlined that more than $300 million invested in Ether (Ethereum's coin) was locked up in a number of digital multi-signature wallets and later accidentally destroyed by a user in a series of bugs. Neither the coins nor the money could be recovered.
Ironically, a hacker did not cause this issue. It was a technical issue, and certainly not first time such an incident has occurred.
It seems like the rise of cryptocurrencies was exactly what hackers have been waiting for all their lives.
In order to keep digital currency coins secure, they are encrypted, which makes a lot of sense. The problem is that a coin does not have your name written on it. The encrypted code identifies the currency itself, but not the owner. This means that whoever holds the code automatically becomes the owner, even if the code was stolen.
Above that, once an exchange or a digital wallet got hacked and all coins are gone, it's very hard or even impossible to retrieve them.
These are some of the attacks that have happened in the last years:
- 2014: The world's largest Bitcoin exchange, Mt. Gox, went into bankruptcy after being hacked with $460 million (approx. 740,000 Bitcoins) stolen.
- March 4, 2014: 12.3% of the BTC on Poloniex was stolen.
- Aug. 2, 2016: 119,756 Bitcoins were stolen from bitfinex due to a security breach.
- Jan. 27, 2018: Cryptocurrency exchange Coincheck (Tokyo) said that the day before a hacker had stolen about 58 billion yen ($532 million) worth of its holdings in NEM.