Breast cancer grade
In general, the general classification of breast cancer is based on the comparison of cancer cells with normal cells. To find out the degree of breast cancer, there is usually a collaboration between an oncologist breast surgeon and a pathologist. After taking a sample from the patient's breast and sending it to the pathology of this sample, the tissue of the tumor is examined under a microscope. The pathologist also looks at the specific characteristics of cancer cells and divides breast cancer into grades 1 to 3.
Why is breast cancer graded?
In order to know the extent of the spread of cancer in the surrounding organs and tissues, as well as choosing the best treatment methods for patients with breast cancer, it is better to first determine what stage the cancer is in and what the degree of breast cancer is.
By looking at cancer cells under a microscope, their general characteristics and tumor growth rate are examined.
Lower-grade tumors are more like normal cells and grow slowly. While high-grade tumors are abnormal and spread rapidly.
Tumor grading and staging
The degree of cancer will be used to determine the stage of breast cancer progression (that is, to determine how advanced a person has breast cancer).
Doing this helps the breast cancer doctor decide which treatment can eliminate the malignancy with the least amount of damage. For example, early-stage cancer may require surgery or radiation therapy, while advanced-stage cancer may require chemotherapy.
Staging of breast cancer
In cancer staging, it describes the size of the tumor and whether it has spread from where it started. There are several systems used to describe cancer staging. The most common of these are the TNM staging system and the number staging system.
TNM staging system
T: Describes the size of the tumor.
N: Explains whether the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes and which nodes are involved. For example, N0 means no lymph nodes. N1 means that cancer cells are present in 1 to 3 lymph nodes.
M: Explains whether the cancer has spread to another part of the body. For example, M0 means that the cancer has not spread (metastasized) to other parts of the body.
Sometimes the final stage of TNM may not be definitive until after surgery to kill the cancer.
Staging the progression of breast cancer
Breast cancer stage 1:
Breast cancer is when the cancer tumor is 2 cm or smaller in size and a small number of cancer cells are found. Sometimes breast cancer is not found, but these cancer cells have spread to the axillary lymph nodes.
Breast cancer stage 2:
Breast cancer is when the size of the cancerous tumor is less than 5 cm. It may not be spread in the lymph nodes under the arm. Sometimes breast cancer is not found. Cancer may not be found in the breast, but a few lymph nodes may be involved.
Breast Cancer Stage 3:
Sometimes breast cancer progresses locally or locally. The cancer has spread to the axillary lymph nodes and sometimes to other nearby lymph nodes. It may spread to the skin of the breast or chest muscle. The skin may be red and swollen. Sometimes breast cancer is not found or is small in size but has spread to 4 to 9 axillary lymph nodes.
Breast cancer stage 4:
It is called secondary or metastatic breast cancer. This is when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the bones, liver or lungs.
Breast cancer grading based on tumor characteristics
The most common breast cancer grading system that has spread to surrounding tissues is based on two cell characteristics in the tumor that distinguish them from healthy cells:
Nuclear plumorphism : Describes how the nucleus of each cancer cell differs from normal cells.
Mitotic count: The number of tumor cells that are actively dividing.
The pathologist gives each feature a score from 1 to 3 to determine the degree of breast cancer.
Breast Cancer grade
Breast cancer ratings provide information such as how fast the mass is growing. Breast cancer is graded based on the observation of cancer cells under a microscope compared to normal cells.
Grade 1 (low grade cancer)
Cancer cells are similar to normal cells (they differentiate well). They usually grow slowly. These cancer cells are less likely to spread.
Grade 2 (moderate or moderate cancer)
Cancer cells look abnormal and grow a little faster than first-degree cells.
Grade 3 (high grade cancer)
Cancer cells are very different from normal cells (not much different). They may grow faster than grade 1 or 2 cells.
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