The Foundations and History of Artificial Intelligence

Prashant sapkota

In a proposal drafted the year before the Dartmouth research program, McCarthy joined forces with Claude Shannon (known for his information theory), Marvin Minsky (a pioneer in computational neural networks), and Nathaniel Rochester ( developed IBM's first commercial scientific computer), identified seven aspects of artificial intelligence that needed to be addressed to solve the problem of creating true artificial intelligence. "2 Months and 10 People in Research on Artificial Intelligence" by John McCarthy (Dartmouth College), Marvin Minsky (Harvard University), Nathaniel Rochester (IBM), August 31, 1955, The term "artificial intelligence" was used in the proposal, and Claude Shannon (Bell Telephone Laboratories). Logic Theorist was developed by Herbert Simon and Allen Newell in December 1955, the first artificial intelligence program to finally prove 38 of Whitehead and Russell's first 52 theorems of mathematical principles.

Weizenbaum, who wanted to demonstrate the superficiality of human-machine communication, was surprised at the number of people who attributed human feelings to a computer program. The first expert system that automates the process of decision-making and problem solving by organic chemists, with the general purpose of studying the formation of hypotheses and constructing empirical models of induction in science. The learning algorithm for layered artificial neural networks made a significant contribution to the success of deep learning in the 2000s and 2010s when the computing power became sufficiently advanced to enable learning in large networks.

Thus, two researchers formalized the architecture of our modern computers and demonstrated that it is versatile machine capable of doing what is programmed. Turing, on the other hand, first raised the question of the possible intelligence of a machine in his famous 1950 paper "Computing Machines and Intelligence" and described a "game simulation" in which a person must be able to distinguish in teletype dialogue whether he is talking to a person or a machine. ... As controversial as this article may be (this "Turing test" does not seem to fit for many experts), it will often be cited as a reason to question the boundary between man and machine. According to the father of artificial intelligence, John McCarthy, it is "the science and technology for creating intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs."

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a sixty-year discipline that is a collection of sciences, theories, and methods (including mathematical logic, statistics, probability, computational neuroscience, computer science) that aim to mimic human cognitive abilities. The main impetus for AI lies in the development of computer functions related to human intelligence, such as reasoning, learning, and problem-solving. Artificial intelligence is achieved by studying how the human brain thinks and how humans learn, make decisions and work in an attempt to solve a problem, and then use the results of this research as the basis for developing intelligent software and systems.

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