Recently Nasa put the images taken by the James Webb telescope in the public domain. These photos are not only beautiful, but they also disclose many unknown facts about the universe. One of the photos captured by the telescope gives us the oldest glimpse of the universe. We can see 13.1 billion years into the past. One of the other photos also claims that h20 is also found on a different planet. Many astronomers also believe that the James Webb Telescope can help in searching for alien life.
The cost of the James Webb Telescope is $10 billion and it took NASA 30 years to develop the telescope. And most interestingly, the telescope is in the L2 orbit which is about 1.5 million kilometers from earth and it is operating at a temperature of 273.15 °C. To maintain this temperature, the James Webb Telescope doesn't orbit around Earth, it orbits around the Sun. About 1.5 million km from Earth, there is a point named as L2 point, there's it is always in the Earth's shadow, in a way that it can safely orbit around the Sun. The focal length of this telescope is 131.4 meters. The weight of the telescope's main mirror is around 705 kg.
The photo gives us a glimpse of 4.6 billion years ago. After seeing this photo, American President Joe Biden said that it is a new window into the history of the universe. In this photo, we can see a galaxy cluster. SMACS 0723. The galaxies closer to our camera, have a high gravitational force such that they are distorting the light coming behind them. One of the most interesting facts about this photo is that it took 12.5 hours to take this photo. The telescope had to take different images, at different wavelengths, and later combined them. And we are now seeing the combined photo. The galaxies that appear redder in color, in the photo are farther from us. The redder the galaxy, the farther it is.
This photo has been named Stephan's Quintet. It is a cluster of five galaxies, the prefix 'quin' is used for the number 5, such as 'quad' is used for 4. This quintet is more like a Quartet. Because the leftmost galaxy among them is 40 million light-years away from us, and the other 4 galaxies, are about 290 million years away. As you can see, the photo of the leftmost galaxy looks more HD, if you zoom into the photo. While the other four galaxies look quite blurry. These four galaxies are so close to each other that the dust and stars present in them, have started interacting with each other. For scientists, this is interesting to see. Scientists want to know what happens when galaxies get so close to one another.
The mountain range kind of thing that you see, has been named Cosmic Cliffs by scientists. This is a Nebula. Nebula means a bright area formed by clouds of dust and gases. The name of this specific nebula is Carina Nebula. If we go back to the life cycle of a star, then a star is born at a stage of a Stellar Nebula. In this photo, we can see the birth of the stars.
The most interesting discovery by the James Webb Telescope is the discovery of the spectrographic data of the planet WASP - 96B. This is an exoplanet 1,150 light years away from us. Apart from cameras, the James Webb Telescope is equipped with a NIRISS. NIRISS stands for Near infra-RED imager and Slitless Spectrograph. The spectrograph is an instrument that measures the intensity of the various wavelengths of light. For 6.5 hours, the NIRISS measured the light coming from the planet. The result of the measurement was the light curve. The most surprising thing is that there is some haze and clouds and even water is found on this planet. But scientists have discovered that this planet is not habitable because the estimated temperature of that planet is more than 538 degrees Celsius. So it is impossible to find aliens there. But over the next few months, the James Webb Telescope will analyze another planet, it will be pointed toward a new planet, to take pictures of that planet, which is said to be one of the most potentially habitable planets.