### Excel VLOOKUP Function:

This tutorial demystifies the description, basic syntax, and usage of the **Excel VLOOKUP function** in **Office 365**.

### Description of the VLOOKUP Function:

- The
**VLOOKUP (Vertical Lookup)**function looks**up data in a range or table by row**. **It****searches for the value in the first column of the table and returns the value in the same row as per the col_index_num position**.- This function supports
**exact, approximate, and wildcards (*?) for partial matches**.

### VLOOKUP Function – Syntax:

The basic syntax of the VLOOKUP function is,

=VLOOKUP(lookup_value, table_array, col_index_num, [range_lookup])

**Argument Explanation:**

**1) lookup_value (Required)**– The value you want to search for must be in the first column of the given range that you specify in the*table_array*argument.**2) table_array (Required)**– The range of cells needs to be two or more columns of data. The range should contain the*lookup_value*and return value.**3) col_index_num (Required)**– The column number in the given range contains the return value. The counting starts from the leftmost column (i.e., the first column is 1) in the table array.**4) range_lookup (Optional)**– A logical value either TRUE or FALSE.**TRUE (1) – Approximate match:**It looks for the closest value in the first column with the*look_up value*by assuming the first column in the table is sorted either alphabetically or numerically. It is the default match if you don’t specify this argument.**FALSE (0) – Exact match:**– It looks for the exact match in the firstwith the__Column__*look_up value*.**Refer to the below screenshots to understand the arguments in pictorial representation.**

**First Argument:**

**Second Argument:**

**Third Argument:**

**Fourth Argument:**

**1) VLOOKUP – Looks only Right:**

- VLOOKUP function can
**only****lookup****right**. - The
**value you want to look up****must be in the first column**of the given cell range. - The
**result values**that you want to retrieve can**appear**in**any column to the right of the lookup values**.

**Example 1:**

- In this example, we have looked up a value
**‘Robert’**in the**“First Name”**column. - Here, the
**column index argument is 2**, so as per the cell reference, the VLOOKUP function looks suitable from the leftmost column (First Name) and returns the output as**‘John’**from the 2nd column (Last Name).

**Example 2:**

- In this example, we have looked up a value
**‘Betty’**in the**“Last Name”**column. - Here, the
**column index argument is 3**, so as per the cell reference, the VLOOKUP function looks suitable from the leftmost column (Last Name) and returns the output as**‘Texas’**from the 3rd column (State).

**2) VLOOKUP – Column Numbers:**

- When using the VLOOKUP function,
**assume that every column is numbered starting from the left towards the right**. - If you want to
**get an output from a specific column**, you must provide the**relevant number as the column index argument**. - For example, if you want to retrieve output from the column that is second from the lookup column, then you have to give the column index argument as 2.

**Example 1:**

- Here, in this example, we have looked up a value
**‘1105’**in the**“ID”**column and retrieved the value from the**“Last Name”**column that is 3rd from the “ID” column. - As the “Last Name” column is 3rd from the lookup column, we have given the
**column index as 3**. - The function returned the output as
**‘Linda’**corresponding to the lookup value ‘1105’.

**Example 2:**

- Here, in this example, we have looked up a value
**‘Kenneth’**in the**“Last Name”**column and retrieved the value from the**“Salary”**column that is 2nd from the “Last Name” column. - As the “Salary” column is 2nd from the lookup column, we have given the
**column index as 2**. - The function returned the output as
**‘34808’**corresponding to the lookup value ‘Kenneth.’

**3) VLOOKUP – Case-insensitive:**

- The VLOOKUP function
**performs a case-insensitive lookup**within a table or cell range.

**Example:**

- We are going to look up the value
**‘SUSAN’**in the**“First Name”**column. - If the lookup value is present inside the table, we will retrieve the value from the
**“Last Name”**column that is 2nd from the “First Name” column as a result.

- The VLOOKUP function is case-insensitive. In the “First Name” column, it looks up Susan, SUSAN, SuSan, Susan, etc., in the “First Name” column.
- The function returned the output as
**‘Ava’**as it locates the**Susan (first occurrence)**in the third row, so the SUSAN value is ignored.

### **VLOOKUP TRUE vs FALSE:**

**4) Exact Match (FALSE):**

- The VLOOKUP function
**looks up for the exact match in the table’s first column (leftmost column)**or cell range if the range_lookup argument is given as**FALSE**. - You can also give
instead of FALSE.*zero*(0) - If the function can’t find the exact match in the first column, it returns a #N/A Error.

**Example:**

- The function looks for an exact match with the lookup value
**‘1108’**in the given cell range as the argument is declared as**FALSE**.

- If the value
**1108**is present within the cell range, the function returns the value in the 4th column corresponding to the same row of the lookup_value.

- So, for this example, it returned the output as ‘56126’.

**5) Approximate Match (TRUE):**

- Sometimes,
**you may not require the exact match**, and in that case, you can use the**TRUE argument,**so the function looks up the closest match. - If you set the argument as
**TRUE or omitted**, it will search for an exact match first, and if an exact match is not found, it**looks for the next highest value that is less than the lookup value**. - You can also give
instead of TRUE.*one*(1) - By
**default**, it will take the**argument**as**TRUE**if you omit the argument. - If the lookup value is smaller than the smallest in the lookup range, the Excel VLOOKUP function will return the #N/A error.

**Example:**

- In this example, the VLOOKUP function looks up for the value
**1120**in the table’s first column (leftmost column). - Although the value 1120 is not present at the table, it will not throw any error as we have given the argument as TRUE (approximate match).

- There is no value 1120 in the first column, so it tells the function to return an approximate match.

- So, in this example, the value will be
**1110**(the next highest value less than the lookup value), and it returns the salary output as**‘175689’**(4th column) of the same row.

**6) First Match:**

- If the
**lookup column or leftmost column contains identical or duplicate values**, the**function considers the first occurrence**and returns its corresponding row output.

**Example:**

- Take a look at the example below. The VLOOKUP function is configured to find the salary for
**‘William.’**

- There are two entries with the first name William, so the function returns the salary of the first entry,
**85256**, and ignores the second instance.

**7) Wildcard Match:**

- If you want to
**perform a partial match**using the Excel VLOOKUP function, you have to use wildcards. - In simple words, you can
**give a part of a value that you want to search for**when you don’t remember the exact value. - To use wildcards, you have to
**specify the last argument as FALSE**for exact match mode. **To match any sequence of characters**, you have to use**Asterisk(*).**- Use a
**Question mark (?)****to****match any single character**.

**Using Asterisk (*):**

**Example 1: Searching for a value that starts with certain characters**

- In this example, we have looked up a value that starts with
**‘Kev’**in the “First Name” column.

- The function found the ‘Kevin’ value in the First Name column, returning the state as
**‘Michigan.’**

**Example 2: Searching for a value that ends with certain characters**

- In this example, we have looked up a value that ends with
**‘es’**in the “Last Name” column.

- The function found the ‘James’ value in the Last Name column, which returns the salary as
**‘85256’**.

**Example 3: Searching for a value that starts and ends with certain characters:**

- In this example, we have looked up a value that begins with
**‘jet**and ends with**‘ca’**in the “Last Name” column.

- The function found the value
**‘Jessica’**in the Last Name column, returning the state as**‘Arizona.’**

**Example 4: Searching based on cell value**

- You can also enter the known part of the value in some cells, say I3, and combine the wildcard character with the cell reference using an ampersand (&).
- In this example, we have looked up a value that starts with
**‘Rob’**in the “First Name” column. - We entered the known part of the first name value in cell I3 to refer it to the formula.

- The function found
**‘Robert’**in the First Name column, so it returns the salary as**‘91345’**.

**Using Question Mark (?):**

- If you don’t know even what characters are present inside the table, but you know the number of characters, you can use the question mark instead of an asterisk to search for a specific number of characters.

**Example: To search for a four-character value**

- In this example, we looked for a four-character value in the
**“First Name”**column.

- In the First Name column,
**“Noah”**is the four-character value, so the corresponding row salary**‘70855’**is returned as output.

### **8) VLOOKUP – Two-way Lookup:**

- Generally, in the Excel VLOOKUP function, you have to give a static number for the column index argument.
- But, you can also
**create a dynamic column index**with the use of the**MATCH function**. This sort of technique assists you in**matching both rows and columns**by creating a dynamic two-way lookup.

**Example:**

- In this example, VLOOKUP is configured to perform a lookup based on
**ID**and**Salary**. - For the column index argument, we have used the MATCH function to get the position of the column “Salary.”

- We have looked up a value
**‘1107’**in the**“ID”**column and retrieved the salary**‘23456’**as output.

**9) VLOOKUP – Lookup a Value from Another Sheet:**

- It is possible to
**look up a value from the table on another sheet**by using the Excel VLOOKUP function. - To refer to a table on another sheet, you must
**add the sheet name and an exclamation mark**before the table/cell range.

**Example:**

- Refer to the below screenshot that shows the Sheet9.

- In Sheet10, we have entered the VLOOKUP formula to search for the
**‘1106’**ID in Sheet9.

- ID
**‘1106’**is present in the Sheet9, and so the function retrieved the**“First Name”**of its corresponding row from Sheet9,**‘Sarah,’**and displays the output in Sheet10.

**10) VLOOKUP – Lookup a Value from Another Workbook:**

- The VLOOKUP function can also
**look up a value from the Table, which is on another workbook.** - To do so, you have to put the workbook’s name enclosed in square brackets before the sheet’s name.

**Example:**

- Refer to the below screenshot that shows the external workbook named
**Table,**and it contains a sheet named**Sheet1**with a table.

- In the
**‘VLOOKUP’**workbook, we have entered the VLOOKUP formula to search for the**‘1109’**ID in the**‘Table’**workbook. - You have to enter the location of the workbook with its name and sheet name within the single quotes before the exclamatory symbol in the formula.

- The ID
**‘1109’**is present in the external workbook (‘Table’), and so the function retrieved the**“Last Name”**of its corresponding row from the workbook,**‘Kenneth,’**and displays the output in the ‘VLOOKUP’ workbook.

**11) INDEX and MATCH:**

- To perform advanced lookups, you can use INDEX and MATCH functions instead of using VLOOKUP.

**Example:**

- Using the
__Match function__, we have searched for an exact match with ID**‘1104’**within the given cell range.

- If the ID is present within the cell range, it will retrieve the State of its corresponding row, and for that purpose, we have used the Index function.

- It retrieved the state
**‘Washington’**as output for the ID**‘1104’**.

**Common Errors:**

#N/A error– If therange_lookupis FALSE and can’t able to locate the exact match within the cell range, the VLOOKUP function returns this error.

#REF Error– You will get this error value if thecol_index_numis greater than the number of columns.

#Value Error– This error will be returned if thetable_arrayis less than 1.

#Spill Error– If the formula depends on the implicit intersection for the lookup value and uses a whole column as a reference, you will acquire this error value.

– To search for a person’s name, you have to use quotes around the name in the formula, or else you will get this error.#Name Error

You may get the wrong result ifrange_lookupis TRUE or omitted. The first column needs to be sorted numerically or alphabetically. You will not get the expected return value if the first column is not sorted. Use either FALSE for an exact match or sort the first column.

**Closure:**

Searching for data in a table or cell range is straightforward with the use of the VLOOKUP function. We hope that the above article assisted you in learning all about the **Excel VLOOKUP function** in **Office 365**. The description, syntax, and diverse scenarios of the VLOOKUP function are explained distinctly for your easy understanding.

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