Recent DNA analysis of the famous 5,300-year-old mummy known as Ötzi, or the 'Iceman,' challenges previous reconstructions of his appearance and suggests he may have been a farmer with dark skin and male pattern baldness rather than the light-skinned, hairy hunter-gatherer previously imagined.
Ötzi was discovered in the Ötztal Alps in Italy in 1991 and has fascinated researchers and the public alike. The new study, led by scientists at Germany's Max Planck Institute, delved into Ötzi's genome to gain insights into his ancestry and physical traits.
Previous genome studies from 2012 suggested that Ötzi was closely related to present-day Sardinians, leading to the assumption that he descended from a mix of eastern hunter-gatherers and Caucasian hunter-gatherers. However, the recent analysis challenges this notion, finding no evidence of this ancestry.
Instead, the researchers discovered "unusually high" Anatolian farmer ancestry in Ötzi's genome, indicating that he was closely related to Neolithic farmers in Anatolia (modern-day Turkey). These farmers later migrated to Italy but remained relatively isolated in the Alps.
The findings suggest that Ötzi's ancestors began mixing with other European hunter-gatherer populations only a few dozen generations before his birth. This relatively short time frame in terms of population evolution likely led to his distinctive genetic traits.
In addition to the unexpected ancestry, the analysis revealed that Ötzi likely had dark skin pigmentation, a characteristic uncommon in present-day European populations. Furthermore, he carried risk alleles associated with male pattern baldness, indicating that he probably had black hair.
The researchers point out that while Ötzi's genetic profile offers valuable insights, it represents only a single individual and may not fully represent the entire population of his time and region. However, the findings align with the mummy's appearance, which is dark-skinned and hairless, challenging the assumption that his preserved appearance was solely due to being frozen for millennia.
To further confirm these findings, future studies with a broader sampling from the southern Alps region will be necessary to determine whether Ötzi was an outlier or representative of his population. Nevertheless, this research adds a new layer of complexity to the understanding of Ötzi's ancestry and appearance, highlighting the intricate genetic history of ancient humans in Europe.