Artificial Intelligence, Deep Learning, and Medicine

Dr. Adam Tabriz

Proactive Physician stance will save the Art of Medicine
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As physicians, nurses, dentists, or any healthcare expert, we all have experienced the earshot of floating buzzwords about the themes of Artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), and deep learning (DL). But not all of us are mindful of their potential consequences. On the contrary, yet generally speaking, most people, particularly the millennials, seem to be sparkly optimistic about the role of Artificial intelligent technology as being collectively encouraging.

Deep learning is a component of a much more comprehensive group of technology termed machine learning. DL defines the spectrum of artificial neural networks amidst imitation learning. That is why deep learning is also referred to as deep structured learning or differential programming, which can adopt a form of supervised, semi-supervised, or unsupervised modalities.

Deep neural networks, deep belief networks, recurrent neural networks, and convolutional neural networks have been mainly applied to domains such as speech recognition, natural language processing, computer vision, audio recognition, social network filtering, machine translation, bioinformatics, drug design, medical image analysis, material inspection, and board game programs. Each component of the DL techniques has produced results analogous to human expertise and even better.

In general, the concept of machine learning follows; that the gadget should learn and adapt through experience and execute the tasks “smartly.”

Artificial Intelligence implements whatever is learned through machine learning, deep learning, and other systems to solve substantive predicaments. In the computer science realm, artificial intelligence (AI), also referred to as machine intelligence, is nothing but machines’ capacity to demonstrate what is typical for natural intellect exhibited by humans and animals.

The Utility of Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning

With Artificial intelligence, today, one can perform an extraordinary spectrum of tasks. Using AI, one can ask questions by voice and answer many issues not stereotypically known to everyone. Or The computer can find data that could never come to a person’s mind. Artificial Intelligence, utilizing Deep Learning, will offer a narrative summary of someone’s data and suggest other ways to probe into collected information. Similarly, AI will furthermore distribute information narrated to earlier inquiries from others who asked the same questions. You’ll get the answers on a screen or directly through conversation.

The utility of artificial intelligence and Deep Neural Learning may seem potentially legit and promising, particularly concerning the extension of quality human life. Nonetheless, in realism, the messages portrayed are varied. Indeed, In health care, treatment efficacy can be determined instantly, whereas, in retail, inventories are suggested quickly, or in finance, fraud is prevented instead of just spotted. In every latter scenario, the computer efficiently recognizes what information is necessitated, looks at relationships between all the factors, forms an answer, and automatically communicates it to the users. It provides options for follow-up queries and even carries out additional pre-determined tasks with little human intervention, yet even better.

Every AD, ML, DL technology relies on a set of finite sequences of explicit, computer-implementable instruction or algorithms, which are frequently not disclosed to the public. Consequent to everything mentioned, the notion of Artificial Intelligence utility is a bittersweet experience, as the risk versus benefit of the technology lies within its particular algorithm.

Artificial intelligence delivers the promise of genuine human-to-machine interaction. It magnifies human potential with cumulative precision. The intelligent machines, over time, utilizing various machine learning techniques, can understand requests irrespective of a good deed or evil feat.

Artificial Intelligence help connect data points and draw conclusions irrespective of moral consequence, while they can learn to reason, observe, and plan.

All the advancements from Amazon Alexa to Apple Siri brought artificial intelligence closer to its original goal of creating intelligent machines, which we’re starting to see more and more in our everyday lives. From recommendations on our favorite retail sites to auto-generated photo tags on social media, many ordinary online amenities are powered by artificial intelligence. Further, through advances in AI technologies, we see that the more privacy goes out the door, the more trivial it turns out to be our liberty.
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Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare

Artificial intelligence is becoming a transformational force in the healthcare arena, as expected to disrupt healthcare in many ways.

Artificial Intelligence is expected to unify the Human Mind with that of the Machine through an Interface.

Establishing a direct connection between technology and the human brain without using keyboards, mice, and monitors is a state-of-the-art research theme with abundant patient care applications. It will, for example, take up some of the responsibilities for kinds of functions that could be potentially taken away by some Neurological diseases and trauma to the nervous system. Or AI will speak for the patient when impaired; otherwise, move his arm if paralyzed.

The Next Generation of Artificial Intelligence will perform Radiological Readings.

Radiological images captured by MRI machines, CT scanners, and x-rays offer non-invasive visibility into the inner workings of the human anatomy. Though several diagnostic processes still rely on direct tissue sampling or tissue biopsy to carry risks of infection and bleeding, AI will enable the next generation of radiology machines thorough enough to omit the need for diagnostic biopsy in selected instances.

Artificial intelligence is enabling “virtual biopsies” by advancing the innovative field of “radionics.” The following science emphasizes harnessing image-based algorithms to portray the phenotypes and genetic properties of tumors.

Artificial Intelligence will maximize Quality Medical Care to Underserved and Rural Communities.

Shortages of qualified physicians, including radiology technicians and radiologists, can potentially curb admittance to life-saving care in developing communities around the globe.

Artificial intelligence could help alleviate the repercussions of a severe deficit of qualified clinical staff by taking over some of the responsibilities typically earmarked to humans.

Electronic Health Records (EHR) can be more efficient using appropriate AI Algorithms.

Electronic health records play a more active part in the healthcare industry’s drive towards documentation and The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH). However, the transition to the digitalization of health records has faced innumerable problems, from cognitive overload, continual documentation to physician burnout.

HITECH industry is now using AI and deep learning to create more intuitive interfaces by automating some of the formal rules that occupy most of the physician’s time. Most likely than not, machine learning and AI may further support preparing conventional requests from the inbox, like medication refills and results from notifications. It may additionally assist in prioritizing tasks that truly require the clinician’s awareness.

Artificial Intelligence will turn a Medical Device into an Independently functioning Robot.

Innovative medical devices are filling up the user scene, allowing everything from real-time video from the inside of an intestine to sensing facial expression for early diagnosis of Autism.

In the medical setting, intelligent machines monitor patients across various sceneries spectrums, from ICU to home care. Using AI, physicians will benefit from enhanced ability to identify multiple pathologies deterioration. Such as if sepsis is imminent or detect the development of complications before it happens, significantly improving clinical outcomes and reducing costs related to hospital-acquired condition forfeits.

Artificial Intelligence can help avert Risks of Antibiotics-Resistance.

Antibiotic resistance is a growing peril to populations around the ecosphere. The overuse of these essential medications fosters the evolution of certain strains of bacteria that fail to respond to future therapies.

Analyzing Pathologic images with Precision

Today, pathological specimens provide over 70% of the sources of diagnostic data for physicians across the spectrum of care delivery. And almost all the extracted data is widely available within the electronic health record systems. So the more precise we become, and the sooner we get to the correct diagnosis, the better we’re going to be, making digital pathology, data, and AI an invaluable opportunity to deliver better medical care.

Deep learning algorithms and Artificial Intelligence analytics can drill down to the minute precision on large digital images, thus allowing physicians to pinpoint subtleties that may skip the human eye. AI can further enhance productivity by identifying features of concern in pathological preparations before human clinician studies the data.

Deep learning and AI are invaluable for Immunotherapy and Genomic based Cancer Treatment.

Immunotherapy is one of the most astonishing achievements in cancer remedies. It teaches and uses the body’s immune response to attack malignancies. Deep learning algorithms and artificial intelligence upshots promote the synthesis of highly sophisticated datasets that formulate precise decisions for targeted therapies in the direction of individual cancer’s sole genetic structure.

Artificial Intelligence can potentiate Patient Risk stratification by Transforming the Electronic Health Record.

Patient’s medical records are a goldmine of personal data, however extracting and analyzing such a wealth of information in a precise, timely, and consistent manner has been a continual challenge for physicians and data analysts.

Data quality and integrity problems and a mixture of data setups make the task complicated. Moreover, whether inputs are structured or not, along with incompleteness records, makes understanding how to engage in meaningful risk stratification, predict analytics, and support clinical decision-making extremely difficult.

EHR analytics have produced many successful risk scoring and stratification tools. Yet, Amidst all, researchers apply DL methods to classify unique associations between seemingly irrelevant datasets.

Monitoring Health status through Wearable devices is further enhanced using Smart Machines.

With the increasing accessibility to wearable devices that use sensors to collect valuable consumer health data and transmit over smartphones, their utility is becoming more than ever inevitable. For instance, with step trackers, one can continuously track a heart pulse. In short, By implementing such technology, a growing portion of health-related data is generated on the go.

Collecting and analyzing medical information and supplementing it with data obtained from patients through apps and other home monitoring devices can contribute a matchless viewpoint into individual and population well-being. Therefore, Artificial intelligence can play a significant part in extracting actionable insights from this massive and endless treasure of data.
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Smartphone Selfies are the future Tool for the Clinical Exam

Harnessing the potential of portable devices, experts believe that images taken from smartphones and other consumer-grade sources will be an essential supplement to clinical quality imaging, particularly in underserved populations or developing nations.

The quality of cell phone cameras is growing by the year, as they can yield viable images for analysis utilizing artificial intelligence algorithms. Such technologies are very well known to modern Dermatology and ophthalmology.

British Researchers have even developed a means that identifies developmental anomalies by analyzing images of a child’s face in the womb.

Artificial Intelligence is Revolutionizing the way Physicians will do their Diagnostic Workup.

As the healthcare industry is drifting away from a fee-for-service reimbursement system towards a merit-based compensation model, so is it moving further and further from “reactive care” to treating the already manifesting disease to addressing the problem before symptoms appear, hence “proactive care.” Artificial intelligence will lay the grounds for that diagnostic revolution by powering predictive analytics and clinical judgment guide instruments that will alert physicians with obstacles long before they might otherwise recognize the need to tackle.

What is helpful about Deep learning

Deep learning carries the valuable potential for real-world applications. Traditionally, machine learning described the training methods by which pictures used to train the program were tagged with the name of the image.

The traditional machine learning scheme typically uses the photo and matches it with the “Tag” included within the image. The latter ML technique is referred to as “supervised learning.”

Do you recall tagging your photo or your friend’s photo with their name on Facebook posts? — That is how the ML would learn a person’s face, identify it amid others, and match it with other identifying factors on the internet for future authentication and identification.

Supervised learning is fast and demands comparatively less computational power than some other training techniques used in machine learning. However, It has a significant drawback for real-world applications. Every day, an immense amount of information about people is gathered from social media, hardware and software service contracts, app authorizations, and website cookies.

ML-aided data mining or personal information collection is precious to businesses at all levels with various agendas. The problem is that all of the said data is untagged and can’t be used to teach machine learning programs that depend on supervised learning. Because it still requires a person’s help to label or tag the data, which is time-consuming and a costly process.

Deep learning networks can bypass traditional ML shortcomings because they utilize the so-called “unsupervised learning.” DL does not require data labeling or tagging. Even though the pictures don’t come with the name “Tag,” Instead, Deep neural networks will still learn to identify the person.

The ability to learn from un-tagged or unorganized data is a tremendous advantage for those interested in real-world applications. Deep learning unlocks the treasure trove of big unstructured data for those with the imagination to use it.

Artificial intelligence and deep learning, if used suitable, can complement personalized medical care.

The 21st-century millennial vision of physicians and healthcare is still about maintaining Hippocratical personalized medicine while sustaining quality medical care using state-of-the-art technology. Concomitantly the medical community is losing sanity by rapid putsch of sacred clinical judgment to a protocol-based unyielding algorithmic patient care. The old-fashioned population health model is one of the reasons to blame for such a course. But Artificial intelligence, if obtained through transparent and accountable methods, can lay the foundation for the personalized healthcare system.

Deep learning technology can learn everything about a patient from birth onward and preserve it in a decentralized fashion (Using Blockchain technology) without exposing personal information to alternate use. The data collected and held by the individual patient, physician, or any other user as the sole owner of their data will be able to take advantage of the unsupervised DL technology to help them take advantage of the kind of personalized care they want to need. Centralized big data processing will only benefit other industries and further contaminate the already flawed population health model.

Artificial Intelligence will enable physicians to tailor treatments to the patient’s needs.

The population health principle is not receptive to a patient’s wants. Deep learning will learn every Individual need according to their expectations and requirements, thus by way of AI, will advise the physician and patient alike the best.
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The Bad of Artificial Intelligence

Modern society has been liberal in handling public digital information. But citizens will still pick up the consequences of such naivety of their attitude, yet, only the hard way. For instance, they will eventually figure out how valuable is what they are putting out there in harm’s way and how it is abused or used against them. Most of all, people will, in the end, realize that, despite public reassurance by the giant social media and tech moguls, their data is not only a covert weapon against them but also is the digital cash they could put back in their pocket. Instead, personal data are indirectly being weaponized and laundered in the global scenery. Nevertheless, let's only hope it will not be too late; we all recognize those mentioned earlier.

They say, on Facebook, users are becoming more and more discreet about who they share what kinds of data with, but with the use of Un-supervised Deep learning methods, even being discrete will be superseded unless people stop using Facebook altogether.

Likewise, True, patients tend to trust their physicians more than they might believe in a big company like Facebook, which may help alleviate discomfort with contributing data to large-scale research initiatives, but what good it will do if the data is centrally stored. The giant HITECH company is the sole holder of the “Big Data”?!

Automation-Spurred job Loss

Although Artificial Intelligence replacing human jobs is a matter of great controversy, it is the least of all concerns. AI, indeed, will replace particular types of jobs in many industries, and not exclusively those jobs requiring predictable and repetitive tasks. Nevertheless, no doubt, disruption has already begun.

Privacy Violations

Ill-disposed use of AI could threaten digital security by various modalities is an imminent threat. Training machines to hack or socially engineered victims is a matter of great concern. Also, non-state actors weaponizing consumer drones or privacy-eliminating surveillance, profiling, repression, automated, and targeted disinformation campaigns are a few of many fits of abuse we can face by refusing to see the trend.

Deepfakes Utilizing Deep Learning

Similarly, audio and video are created by manipulating voices and likenesses. Deepfakes is already making waves. Using machine learning and deep learning will potentially involve natural language processing; an audio clip of any particular politician could be tainted to make it seem as if that person spurted racist views when in reality, they uttered nothing of the sort.

Socioeconomic inequality and Algorithmic bias caused by insufficient Data

The widening socioeconomic disparity can be well thought using AI-driven job loss is a significant concern. Along with education, work has long been also a driver of social mobility. However, when it’s a certain kind of work, the predictable, repetitive nature that’s prone to AI takeover research has given away that those who find themselves out in the cold are much less apt to get or seek retraining than those in higher-level positions, which have more money.

Various forms of AI bias are detrimental, as are the data and algorithmic bias. The latter can “amplify” the former.

We always need to remember; Artificial Intelligence is the product of human beings, and humans are innately influenced. AI researchers merely come from specific racial demographics who grew up in high socioeconomic areas. Scientists are primarily people without disabilities from a relatively homogeneous population. Therefore, it’s difficult for those individuals to efficiently connect with the diversity of society and their assorted concerns.

The root of all biases in the process from Data Mining to deep learning and ultimately, Artificial intelligence is socially and economically motivated. Because technology is the derivative of what humans design, hence making scientists and executives some of the most treacherous people in the world by way of the illusion of objectivity and greed.

Weapons Automatization

Artificial Intelligence can be extra dangerous than bombs. Whether it is a good idea to start a global Artificial Intelligence arms race or prevent its future proliferation is important. If any significant military power acquires AI weapon development, a global arms race would be virtually foreseeable. The endpoint of this technological trajectory is evident, as autonomous weapons will become the guns of tomorrow.

Unlike nuclear weapons, AI requires no costly or hard-to-obtain raw materials. They will become ubiquitous and inexpensive for all significant military supremacies to mass-produce. It will only be a matter of time before the intelligent robotic weapons surface on the black market and in the hands of radicals, dictators wishing to control their masses, tyrants wishing to commit ethnic cleansing, etc.

Self-governing armaments are flawless for jobs like subverting a country, committing murders, mollifying populations. A military AI arms war would not be promising for humanity. There are many ways in which Artificial Intelligence can make battlegrounds safer for humans, mainly civilians, without designing new tools to kill people. But then again, The US Military’s proposed budget for 2020 is $718 billion. Of the mentioned amount, nearly $1 billion would support AI and machine learning for things like logistics, intelligence analysis, and weaponry. AI can further enhance the selective assassination of a specific ethnic group.

Artificial Intelligence and Big Data for Corporations is the food for the sole of Transformers Metaphor.

Historically corporations have enjoyed the generosity of personhood, collective influence of their stakeholder’s money, and technology. Today, using AI, corporate cartels are exercising the ability to read the human mind, access their personal information without breaking a single law. Nevertheless, the forfeits of people to the entire collective action of the industries are real.

Artificial Intelligence Industry is Replacing Physician

The prevailing conception, more so by the HITECH industry, is that machines will eventually replace physicians. Although this may be true, it is farther from wise. The indiscriminate utility of ML and AI is overwhelming to physicians’ practices and influences the quality of care a patient receives from their provider. Building a technology that will utilize a prewritten algorithm through business intelligence or machine learning primarily designed to collect data from various sources is a growing and scary trend not just from a business perspective that it would be valuable just like a gold rush of our century but also from the quality and utilization perspective that is directly involved in patient care.

The ugly of Machine learning and Artificial Intelligence

Data industry, Big data, and more so, Health information has turned into a money-printing engine for every sector. Health information alone has become trillions of dollars market. Software companies persuade citizens that the data is encrypted thus not accessible, even to their employees. But AI has provided them with the capability to utilize public data any way they please. Parallel to advancements with Deep Learning technologies, the concept of Internet Freedom and Net neutrality is becoming more and more obsolete.
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Empathic Transference

Human beings are fascinated by ways to teach the machine to express complete empathy, just like humans. The concept of Empathetic Transference is the ugly image of the human being on its way to satisfy the longtime battered ego.

The imbalance between strategy and tactical mission of many industries has turned out to be the upshot of tempting the Big Data gold rush, pivoting the industry away from their vision and mission originally conveyed. The latter has been further enhanced by advances made in Deep learning schemes.

Artificial Insemination and Genetic Profiling

Artificial Intelligence, big data are presently used in artificial insemination, donor eggs, and genetic profiling with particular pros and cons. The latter said it is specific to science, technology, and cultural and ethical applications. When applied collectively, their impact on the constancy of social norms is exponentially deleterious. We’re simply entering a space where the upkeep of anonymity, respecting individual privacy and preventing major social, psychological, ethical, and legal disputes will be a strenuous undertaking. Unless fundamental solutions are realized regarding AI and DL algorithms, the era of paternal anonymity will soon come to an end. Between the Sperm banks being forced to break rules of a confidentiality agreement with their donors, the growing Genetic Testing Market, along with lucrative corporate financial gain; the upkeep of donor confidentiality and offspring identity is fated to become an unrelenting task.

Why it is crucial to own the Algorithms

Compassion, sentiment, empathies are all significant parts of the healing process and medical treatments. But although you can teach computers to act empathic, it will always fall short of genuine human emotion; that is why Artificial Intelligence will never replace the physician’s role. Nevertheless, it doesn’t override the fact that physicians should not adapt themselves to the perpetual changes happening around them.

Artificial intelligence is here and is most likely to stay. Physicians can choose to pull a blind eye to technological advancement, particularly over the DL algorithms, or take ownership of their domain. If they select the former attitude, physicians will lose their job and sacred obligation to patients to industries and people who have little or no knowledge of patient care.

The physicians must reform the way they practice medicine. They must harmonize and direct the way they care for a patient on the right path using the most up-to-date tools validated and tested by physicians for the healthcare community.

AI Algorithms must be Transparent and Architects Accountable.

It is also crucial to maintain transparency of the algorithms if physicians and the medical community ensure quality medical practice. Since trusting technology is nothing like trusting its designers, that sure stands true for Artificial Intelligence and machine learning.

Accountability is a must; however, to assert culpability proceeding Artificial intelligence, We must implement first proper transparency initiatives. Most importantly, physicians must demand such transparency and mandate accountability if they are not held liable themselves. The latter is the epitome of change expected of the physician community.

The legal community, particularly attornies, face similar challenges as the physicians; nonetheless, they seem to retain the ownership of their artificial intelligence algorithms effectively. All attornies have collectively established that the conflict of interest threatening the legal system by way of financial benefit over admitting “non-lawyers” to own or invest in law firms. Technically speaking, the opponents of the latter rule are particularly concerned about validating their technology. Improper validation and oversight would give rise to more effortless undertaking certain legal activities by non-attorneys.

What Physicians must know about Artificial Intelligence

The Healthcare technology rush is the primary factor behind the disconnect between Physicians and their Domain and vice versa. Companies other than the health industry have alternate motives, hence mining for valuable patients and physicians. The utility of Deep learning to snatch patient information has already begun. As mentioned earlier, Big data mining is vital to make available the vast pool of data required for robotic medicine and artificial intelligence. Besides, all the above is necessary to replace the human factor in the prospect.

Imperatively, Algorithms should deliver as they intended for tactical medical care, devoid of any strategic undertaking to pivot corporate interest to financial gain.

Physicians can only warrant the adaptability of Deep learning algorithms to individual circumstances while designing them to act submissive to physicians versus independent providers.

The Medico-legal Perils of Artificial Intelligence and Deep Learning can be harmful to physicians if not recognized. So a valuable AI must identify the particular reference point for the standard of care on a precise scenario, time, place, and individual.

With the aid of patients, the physician ought to redefine every case and have the legal, ethical, and organized power to override verdicts by making a personalized approach mutually. If failed to address patient problems within the medical standard of care spectrum, the treating physician will potentially face legal responsibility if something goes wrong.

Change in Attitude saves Physicians Independence.

Unfortunately, the physician’s profession relies on self-created habits. Doctors’ habitual practice has formed cultures and staff hiring practices that align with those personal habits. But routines need to change, which will further disconnect physicians from the contemporary world if not turned around.

Along the spectrum of attitude reform, physicians must embrace Artificial intelligence, deep learning technology, just like they did embrace stethoscopes and X-rays during the past centuries. Doctors must understand its utility and perils. They can only adopt the best practice, maintain independence, ensure patient safety, and promote modern personalized healthcare.

#AI #ML #Artificialintelligence #Healthcare #Physicianpractice

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