The demise of the Ming Dynasty was not the fault of Emperor Chongzhen alone

congbing pan

The demise of the Ming Dynasty was not the fault of Emperor Chongzhen alone. It was the inevitable result of the impoverishment and weakness of several emperors of the Ming Dynasty. However, from the perspective of God, the Qing Dynasty could finally take control of the Central Plains and attacked Toyotomi Hideyoshi of Japan. Daming related.

One night in the Jiajing period, in the sleeping tent of Li Chengliang, the Liaodong marshal, a small servant was washing his feet and saw three scabs on the soles of his feet. Li Chengliang triumphantly said: "My blessing and official luck are all in these three scorpions!" Xiao Si said: "I have seven stubborns on the soles of my feet, so why is there no good fortune and official luck?" Li Chengliang contacted the folks to have feet. The legend that the true dragon emperor who stepped on the seven stars appeared and went against the rituals of the Ming Dynasty immediately moved the murderous heart. Li Chengliang's concubine has always loved this concubine, and when he learned that Li Chengliang had this plan, he let him escape overnight. This young man who escaped from the dead was the Manchu hero Nurhachi.

The Bullied Jurchen

The Jurchen people have a long history, living in the northeast of the world, and they went south to the Central Plains to establish the Jin Dynasty. After the fall of the Jin Dynasty, the Jurchen tribe was almost annihilated, and only the tribes living in the northeast of the country survived.

In the Ming Dynasty, the Jurchens of Liaodong were divided into three groups: Haixi, Jianzhou, and Savage. Nurhachi belonged to the more advanced Jianzhou department. At that time, Jurchen's various ministers were fighting, bullying and tyrannical. In order to avoid Jurchen being strong, the Ming Dynasty also beat whoever became strong, or instigated them to fight each other. Many famous leaders were taboo by the Ming court. , Was attacked and killed.

At that time, Li Chengliang, who guarded Liaodong in the Ming Dynasty, was a famous general with Qi Jiguang, and nomadic tribes of all sizes were invincible in his hands whether they were fighting in groups or singled out. It can be said that Li Chengliang, a Jurchen person, is tortured as he wants, and he goes straight to the camp at every turn. "Men, women, old and children will be slaughtered." Many Jurchens can only survive by hiding in the deep mountains and old forests. The young Nurhachi was also captured by Li Chengliang as child servants.

Even North Korea bullied the Jurchens. In the early years of the Ming Dynasty, Li Dynasty's castle was always nailed into the marginal territory of Jurchen. The Jurchens could only retreat with bitterness and tears, giving way to the large tracts of land south of the Yalu River and Tumen River.

Growing up, Nurhachi gradually annexed other tribes of Jurchen and began to unify Jurchen. The Ming Dynasty and North Korea, who saw Jurchen as a potential threat, had just prepared to send troops together to attack, but they were interrupted by a sudden disaster.

Toyotomi Hideyoshi's ambition

At the end of the 16th century, Japan's continual conquest of the Warring States Period had just come to an end. The smug Hideyoshi Toyotomi was determined to perform in a wider space than Japan. He planned to conquer North Korea first, then use North Korea as a springboard to conquer China, and finally hit India and build an Asia Great empire.

In 1592, Toyotomi Hideyoshi dispatched an army of 200,000 to land in North Korea. The offensive was fierce all the way, and the North Korean army that had not been baptized by fighting for many years was defeated. In just two months, all the eighteen roads in the three capitals of North Korea (Seoul, Kaesong, and Pyongyang) fell. The King of Korea fled to the Yalu River and asked for help from the Ming Dynasty.

There was an uproar in the Ming Dynasty, and the arrogance and ambition of the Japanese completely angered the Ming Shenzong who lived in the deep palace. He gave an order, and the imperial machinery, which was already slightly outdated and corroded, suddenly started operating at high speed. Within a few months, the most elite army of 100,000 was mobilized, and Li Rusong, the son of Li Chengliang, led the aid to the DPRK.

The news that the Ming Empire sent troops was like a thunderstorm that made the Japanese troops across the Korean peninsula frightened. In just four months, the Ming troops had swept thousands of miles and swept across the peninsula. After that, the Japanese army was greatly frightened by the strength of the Ming army. Fifty thousand people guarded Seoul, unable to get out, and were surrounded by more than 30,000 Ming troops. A death squad of only 700 members of the Ming army could go deep into the Japanese hinterland and burn 13 granaries overnight. While Japan was delaying time in seeking peace with the Ming army, while rushing to recruit reinforcements, the two sides were at odds with each other.

In 1598, Toyotomi Hideyoshi suddenly died of illness, and more than 100,000 Japanese soldiers fell into a desperate situation in Korea. The Chinese and North Korean troops took the opportunity to counterattack and blocked the Japanese in the sea in southern North Korea. On the sea, there were swords and blood shadows, fires blazing into the sky, rockets flying around the battleship, Japanese soldiers burned to death and drowned tens of thousands, and almost all the ships were destroyed. The flames of war were finally extinguished.

The elated Ming Shenzong made an exception to reward the three armies at the Meridian Gate, and warned the King of Korea like a little brother to rebuild the country. The relationship between the two countries is obviously stronger, but the growing shadow of the Jurchen people has also enveloped it.

The rise of Houjin

When Toyotomi Hideyoshi's army landed in North Korea, Nurhachi once applied to the Ming Dynasty to lead troops to North Korea for assistance, but the Ming Dynasty and North Korea refused unanimously. Because some people are worried that Nurhachi will make military exploits, the power and popularity among the Jurchen ministries will rapidly expand.

Kindly treat as a donkey liver and lungs, Nurha simply concentrates on developing his own strength. In the second year after Toyotomi Hideyoshi sent troops to North Korea, Nurhachi defeated his strongest competitor, Haixi Jurchen, and after more than 20 years of battle, he basically unified the Jurchen ministries. In 1616, Nurhaci called himself "Khan of Destiny", the national title of Daikin, and the name of "Houjin" in history, and became a nightmare that was bothersome and lingering for the Ming Dynasty.

Obviously, this is a fatal 20 years. How could the Ming Dynasty and North Korea sit back and watch? It was Toyotomi Hideyoshi's fault. After a great war, the two countries were hurt, and they were really helpless.

In order to resist Japan and aid Korea, the Ming Dynasty "several efforts at home", used hundreds of thousands of troops before and after, and spent nearly 8 million taels in silver. The state finances were basically empty, and the court even ordered the officials to donate their salaries for emergency relief. In order to solve the financial crisis, the Mingshenzong dispatched mining supervisors and tax collectors everywhere, causing people to lose their livelihood. To fight in North Korea, the Liaodong garrison was close and had strong combat effectiveness. Naturally, they were first deployed, giving Nurhachi an opportunity to annex various tribes. After the war, the Liaodong Army suffered heavy losses, which directly affected the ability of Jin after the suppression. And most of North Korea was ravaged by the iron hoof of the Japanese army, and the people were depleted. After the war, the area of ​​cultivated land was less than one-third of the area before the war. The ensuing plague claimed the lives of millions of people.

In order to curb the expansion of Houjin, the Ming Dynasty asked 80-year-old Li Chengliang to come out again. However, Li Chengliang not only lost his courage in the past, but also gave up the strategic location-Kuandian Liupu, which was established in his early years. Later generations criticized Li Chengliang for raising tigers, and even suspected that he had an unusual relationship with Nurhachi. In fact, Liaodong's forces were weak and unable to maintain border security. In order to reduce the cost of border defense, General Li had no choice but to make this move.

In 1619, the Ming Dynasty decided to launch a large-scale war against Houjin. However, the combat effectiveness of the depleted Ming army was drastically reduced. Many soldiers wailed and did not want to leave the customs, and many generals cried and asked for transfer. The four-way Ming army was over 120,000 and was defeated by Nurhachi in Saerhu within five days. The main general Juniper's armor was pierced by sharp arrows because of rust, and he died with 18 arrows in his body. "The dead are full of mountains and plains, blood is flowing into channels, and weapons and corpses are rushing down the Hunhe River, like melting ice and spinning down." From then on, Nurhaci turned from defense to offense, and the Ming Dynasty's rule in the northeast collapsed.

In 1627, Huang Taiji sent 30,000 troops across the Yalu River and captured Pyongyang, forcing the King of Korea to forge a "brother's alliance." In 1636, Huang Taiji led his army to Seoul, and captured the concubine, children and ministers of the King of Korea, and forced the formation of the "Alliance of Monarchs and Ministers." Hedong for thirty years and Hexi for thirty years. I don't know the moment when the King of Korea walked out of the city and became a courtier to Huang Taiji, he had thought about how his ancestor treated these "barbarians". In 1644, the descendants of Nurhaci entered the Pass, conquered the entire Ming Empire and created another dynasty that ruled China for more than two hundred years.

History is so dramatic. China and North Korea fought bloody battles and won an anti-aggression war. The failed Japanese went home and went home, but the two victors were miserable and fell in front of the new enemy. This self-sacrifice of the Ming Dynasty brought fatal consequences for itself. It may be said that it was Japanese aggression that helped the Manchus seize the world.

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