System performance in food and agriculture

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Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries management options range from high to low input systems and include the complete gamut of food and nonfood production kinds, such as biofuels, fibers, and lumber. Current systems range from those that ensure the majority of global food availability to those that are just getting started and have little or no impact on food availability today but could develop in the future.Future population dynamics in the framework of a green economy (i.e. urbanization).

High external input cropping systems; high external input livestock systems; genetically modified organism-based systems; conservation agriculture; integrated pest management; precision farming; sustainable rice intensification; urban and peri-urban agriculture; mixed ricefish systems; mixed crop-livestock systems; organic agriculture; grasslands and forage systems are examples of production systems in agriculture, forestry, and fisheries perennial grain polycultures; crops; traditional polycultures; agroforestry systems; biodynamic agriculture; forestry systems; mountain systems; capture; permaculture aquaculture and fishing.

Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries management options could be compared in terms of the area used, global food supply, labor employment, and ecosystem services provided. The influence of each manufacturing option on diversity is different coherence, connection, efficiency, and resilience, all of which might be examined through the prism of ecological intensification, and their potential for food production.

The implementation potential of various natural resource management choices (ranging from low to high external input systems) in a green economy setting must be evaluated. This would guide the development of policies to address the problem of scarcities. With varying levels of complexity, scaling up any management approach is difficult.

Depending on local natural resource assets and capital, opportunities and limits exist in an investment and sociopolitical circumstances

Low-External Input system (LEI)

Only a small fraction of farmers and on a small scale use the options in this category. These systems are frequently used for low-production farming. Poor farmers frequently lack access to inputs and markets to improve the situation Forest gardens and perennials have also received little attention from scientists.

Because of their complexity, polyculture systems are used. However, there are numerous examples, For example, organic agriculture has been proven effective in most agro-climatic zones, with high productive potential, nutritional diversity, revenue generation, and return maximizing given low technological levels, carbon sequestration, and a small environmental footprint

Permaculture, perennial grain polycultures, and other LEI creative solutions are projected to expand as community awareness of environmental issues grows, along with rising energy, water, and food costs. Upscaling and LEI improvements are contingent on better agro-ecological understanding, a public good that will unlikely satisfy the interests of the wealthy.

Agriculture, on the other hand, invests much in higher education promotion which plays a key role in raising awareness and spreading information.

Some research institutes, as well as civil society organizations, non-governmental organizations, and charities.

This may no longer be sufficient: public incentives and other rewarding mechanisms (such as Payments for Environmental Services) are required for the rapid up-scaling of performing LEI systems to increase food systems' resilience before natural resources become scarce.

Scarcity leads to unanticipated crisis scenarios. Furthermore, this necessitates re-creation.

a lack of local marketplaces for the dozens of "new" items created by such disparate systems

Intermediate External Input systems (IEI)

Food and agriculture systems rely heavily on intermediate external input systems, and this trend is anticipated to continue in the medium term. Their performance varies by region and scale, depending on local resources (environmental, social, and economic).

To achieve this, continuous improvements are required in the conservation of agriculture and urban and peri-urban agriculture are less reliant on natural resources and external inputs while keeping a decent level of productivity. LEI systems, agroecological knowledge, as well as green inputs, are necessary.

Within this area, there will most likely be a transition to greener systems and scaling up prompted by public demand.

However, like with the conversion to organic agriculture in most rich countries and, increasingly, some developing countries, this shift might be substantially hastened by financially supporting specific conversion expenditures.

High External Input systems (HEI)

In the years ahead, HEI systems are more likely to be choices for well-endowed producers (in terms of natural resources and financial flows). Due to public interest, they have been easily scaled up in recent decades is giving favorable conditions for private input providers, as well as public subsidies for synthetic inputs market conditions, especially for cash crops, and farmer attitudes in some areas

The rising cost of inputs like electricity and water will almost certainly lead to a reduction in the economic efficiency of such systems, particularly in the face of environmental challenges

Scarcity issues may become a major impediment to HEI expansion, particularly in the United States. if production costs take into account environmental externalities.

Given the capital availability of HEI systems and the requirement to stay up with food production to fulfill market demand by 2050, more public and private expenditures will be required to gradually shift to green inputs (including, for example, low-carbon inputs, biological and integrated pest management, carbon and biodiversity-friendly technology, mechanization, and weed control) to avoid huge failures and pandemics.

As previously said, diverse ways and possibilities for up-scaling management options are dictated by agro-climatic, socio-economic, and cultural contexts. Lessons can be learned from the successes and failures of low and high external input systems implement to improve all systems.

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